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Dan Wilkerson
Dan Wilkerson

Learn Everything About Formwork For Concrete By Mary Krumboltz Hurd Pdf 13: The Ultimate Guide



Formwork for Concrete by Mary Krumboltz Hurd PDF 13: A Comprehensive Guide for Engineers and Contractors




Formwork for concrete is one of the most essential aspects of any construction project. It is the temporary or permanent structure that supports the fresh concrete until it hardens and acquires its desired shape and strength. Formwork not only determines the quality, appearance and durability of the concrete structure, but also affects the cost, time and safety of the construction process.




Formwork For Concrete By Mary Krumboltz Hurd Pdf 13



If you are an engineer or a contractor who wants to learn more about formwork for concrete, you should definitely check out the book by Mary Krumboltz Hurd. She is a renowned expert in the field of concrete construction, with over 40 years of experience as a structural engineer, consultant, educator and author. Her book, titled Formwork for Concrete, is considered as the authoritative reference on the subject. It covers all aspects of formwork design, construction, inspection, maintenance and repair.


The latest edition of her book, PDF 13, was published in 2018 by the American Concrete Institute (ACI). It incorporates the most recent developments in technology, materials, methods and standards for formwork for concrete. It also features hundreds of illustrations, examples, tables and charts that make it easy to understand and apply the concepts and techniques. Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned professional, you will find this book to be an invaluable resource for your projects.


Types of Formwork for Concrete




There are many types of formwork for concrete, depending on the material, method and purpose of the formwork. However, they can be broadly classified into three main categories: traditional formwork, engineered formwork and reusable formwork.


Traditional Formwork




Traditional formwork is the oldest and most common type of formwork for concrete. It is made of natural materials, such as wood, bamboo, steel or metal. It is usually constructed on site, by carpenters or workers, using nails, screws, bolts or clamps. It is also known as conventional formwork, timber formwork or stick formwork.


The advantages of traditional formwork are:



  • It is cheap and readily available.



  • It is flexible and adaptable to any shape and size of concrete structure.



  • It is easy to handle and transport.



  • It can be reused for several times, if properly maintained.



The challenges and limitations of traditional formwork are:



  • It requires a lot of labor and skill to construct and dismantle.



  • It consumes a lot of material and generates a lot of waste.



  • It is prone to shrinkage, warping, cracking and rotting due to moisture and temperature changes.



  • It has a low load-bearing capacity and may collapse under heavy or dynamic loads.



  • It may not provide a smooth and uniform surface finish for the concrete.



Engineered Formwork




Engineered formwork is the modern and advanced type of formwork for concrete. It is made of synthetic materials, such as plastic, fiberglass, aluminum or composite. It is usually prefabricated in factories, by machines or robots, using precise measurements and specifications. It is also known as system formwork, modular formwork or panel formwork.


The advantages of engineered formwork are:



  • It is fast and easy to assemble and disassemble.



  • It saves a lot of material and reduces waste.



  • It is durable and resistant to moisture, temperature, corrosion and fire.



  • It has a high load-bearing capacity and can withstand heavy or dynamic loads.



  • It provides a smooth and uniform surface finish for the concrete.



The challenges and limitations of engineered formwork are:



  • It is expensive and requires a large initial investment.



  • It is rigid and inflexible to changes in shape and size of concrete structure.



  • It requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to handle and transport.



  • It may not be compatible with other types of formwork or accessories.



Reusable Formwork




Reusable formwork is the innovative and eco-friendly type of formwork for concrete. It is made of recyclable materials, such as plastic, rubber or metal. It is designed to be used repeatedly for multiple projects, without losing its shape or strength. It is also known as permanent formwork, stay-in-place formwork or lost formwork.


The advantages of reusable formwork are:



  • It eliminates the need for stripping and disposal of formwork after concrete curing.



  • It reduces the environmental impact and carbon footprint of construction activities.



  • It enhances the thermal insulation, sound insulation and fire protection of the concrete structure.



  • It can be integrated with other systems, such as reinforcement, drainage, electrical or plumbing.



The challenges and limitations of reusable formwork are:



  • It may not be suitable for all types of concrete structures or applications.



  • It may require additional treatment or coating to prevent corrosion or deterioration.



  • It may affect the aesthetics or appearance of the concrete structure.



Design and Construction of Formwork for Concrete




The design and construction of formwork for concrete are critical steps in any construction project. They require careful planning, analysis, calculation, coordination and supervision to ensure the safety, economy, quality and efficiency of the process. The following are some of the key aspects that need to be considered in the design and construction of formwork for concrete.


Design Principles and Considerations




Design Principles and Considerations




The design of formwork for concrete involves determining the shape, size, layout, support and bracing of the formwork components to withstand the loads and pressures exerted by the fresh concrete and other factors. The design of formwork for concrete should follow these general principles and considerations:



  • Safety: The formwork should be designed to prevent any failure, collapse, damage or injury during the construction process. The formwork should be able to resist the dead load of the formwork itself, the live load of the workers and equipment, the hydrostatic load of the fresh concrete, the wind load and any other loads that may occur. The formwork should also provide adequate access, egress and ventilation for the workers.



  • Economy: The formwork should be designed to minimize the cost and time of the construction process. The formwork should use the optimal amount and type of material, labor and equipment. The formwork should also be reusable or recyclable as much as possible. The formwork should also avoid any waste or excess of material or concrete.



  • Quality: The formwork should be designed to ensure the quality and durability of the concrete structure. The formwork should provide a smooth and uniform surface finish for the concrete. The formwork should also prevent any defects or flaws in the concrete, such as honeycombing, cracking, bleeding or segregation. The formwork should also protect the concrete from any adverse environmental conditions, such as moisture, temperature or chemical attack.



  • Efficiency: The formwork should be designed to facilitate the construction process. The formwork should be easy to assemble, disassemble, handle and transport. The formwork should also allow for adequate curing time and inspection of the concrete. The formwork should also coordinate with other systems, such as reinforcement, drainage, electrical or plumbing.



In addition to these principles and considerations, the design of formwork for concrete should also comply with the codes and standards that govern the construction industry. Some of the most common codes and standards for formwork design are:



  • ACI 347-14: Guide to Formwork for Concrete



  • ASCE/SEI 37-14: Design Loads on Structures during Construction



  • OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart Q: Concrete and Masonry Construction



  • EN 1992-1-1: Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures - Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings



Construction Methods and Techniques




The construction of formwork for concrete involves preparing, erecting, supporting, bracing and removing the formwork components according to the design specifications and drawings. The construction of formwork for concrete should follow these general methods and techniques:



  • Preparing: The preparation of formwork for concrete includes selecting, measuring, cutting, drilling and marking the formwork materials. It also includes cleaning, oiling and coating the formwork surfaces to prevent adhesion or corrosion. It also includes checking and verifying the accuracy and alignment of the formwork components.



  • Erecting: The erection of formwork for concrete includes assembling, joining and fixing the formwork components to create the desired shape and size of the concrete structure. It also includes installing any accessories or attachments that are required for the formwork, such as ties, clamps, wedges or bolts. It also includes adjusting and leveling the formwork components to ensure their stability and plumbness.



  • Supporting: The support of formwork for concrete includes providing adequate strength and stiffness to the formwork components to resist the loads and pressures exerted by the fresh concrete and other factors. It also includes providing adequate spacing and clearance between the formwork components to allow for proper placement, compaction and consolidation of the concrete. It also includes providing adequate drainage and ventilation for the fresh concrete.



  • Bracing: The bracing of formwork for concrete includes providing additional reinforcement or stabilization to the formwork components to prevent any movement, deformation or displacement during the construction process. It also includes providing lateral or diagonal support to the formwork components to resist any buckling, bending or twisting. It also includes providing temporary or permanent anchorage to the formwork components to resist any uplift, overturning or sliding.



  • Removing: The removal of formwork for concrete includes disassembling, detaching and releasing the formwork components after the concrete has cured and attained its required strength and hardness. It also includes cleaning, repairing and storing the formwork components for future use or disposal. It also includes inspecting and evaluating the quality and condition of the concrete structure.



In addition to these methods and techniques, the construction of formwork for concrete should also follow the best practices and tips that are recommended by the experts and professionals in the field. Some of the best practices and tips for formwork construction are:



  • Plan ahead and coordinate with other trades and stakeholders.



  • Use appropriate tools, equipment and accessories for formwork construction.



  • Follow the manufacturer's instructions and specifications for formwork materials and systems.



  • Use quality control and quality assurance measures to ensure the accuracy and reliability of formwork construction.



  • Avoid common errors and problems in formwork construction, such as overloading, underloading, misalignment, leakage, vibration or settlement.



Formwork for Special Concrete Structures




Formwork for concrete can be used for various types of concrete structures, such as slabs, beams, columns, walls, foundations and footings. Each type of concrete structure has its own characteristics, requirements and challenges that need to be considered in the design and construction of formwork. The following are some of the key aspects that need to be considered in the formwork for special concrete structures.


Formwork for Slabs and Beams




Slabs and beams are horizontal or inclined concrete structures that span between supports and carry loads. They can have various types, shapes and loads, such as flat slabs, waffle slabs, ribbed slabs, one-way slabs, two-way slabs, cantilever beams, simply supported beams, continuous beams or T-beams. The design and construction of formwork for slabs and beams should consider these aspects:



  • The type, shape and load of the slab or beam determines the size, layout and spacing of the formwork components.



  • The support of the slab or beam formwork can be provided by props, shores, jacks or scaffolds that are adjustable in height and position.



  • The bracing of the slab or beam formwork can be provided by cross-bracing, diagonal-bracing or stiffeners that are attached to the props or shores.



  • The removal of the slab or beam formwork should be done gradually and systematically to avoid any cracking or deflection of the concrete structure.



  • The best practices and tips for slab or beam formwork are:




  • Use prefabricated panels or modules for slab or beam formwork to save time and material.



  • Use lightweight materials or systems for slab or beam formwork to reduce labor and equipment costs.



  • Use drop-heads or flying forms for slab or beam formwork to facilitate early stripping and reuse of formwork components.



  • Use cambering or pre-stressing techniques for slab or beam formwork to compensate for deflection or sagging of the concrete structure.




Formwork for Columns and Walls




Columns and walls are vertical or inclined concrete structures that support loads from above and transfer them to below. They can have various types, shapes and loads, such as square columns, circular columns, rectangular walls, curved walls, shear walls or retaining walls. The design and construction of formwork for columns and walls should consider these aspects:



  • The type, shape and load of the column or wall determines the size, layout and alignment of the formwork components.



  • The support of the column or wall formwork can be provided by props, shores, jacks or scaffolds that are fixed in position and height.



  • The bracing of the column or wall formwork can be provided by ties, clamps, wedges or bolts that are attached to the formwork components.



  • The removal of the column or wall formwork should be done carefully and cautiously to avoid any damage or injury to the concrete structure.



  • The best practices and tips for column or wall formwork are:




  • Use prefabricated panels or modules for column or wall formwork to save time and material.



  • Use engineered formwork systems for column or wall formwork to ensure accuracy and reliability.



  • Use reusable formwork systems for column or wall formwork to reduce environmental impact and waste.



  • Use vibration or consolidation techniques for column or wall formwork to improve the quality and strength of the concrete structure.




Formwork for Foundations and Footings




Foundations and footings are horizontal or inclined concrete structures that support loads from above and distribute them to below. They can have various types, shapes and loads, such as strip foundations, pad foundations, raft foundations, pile foundations, isolated footings, combined footings or mat footings. The design and construction of formwork for foundations and footings should consider these aspects:



  • The type, shape and load of the foundation or footing determines the size, layout and depth of the formwork components.



  • The support of the foundation or footing formwork can be provided by props, shores, jacks or scaffolds that are adjustable in height and position.



  • The bracing of the foundation or footing formwork can be provided by cross-bracing, diagonal-bracing or stiffeners that are attached to the props or shores.



  • The removal of the foundation or footing formwork should be done gradually and systematically to avoid any settlement or cracking of the concrete structure.



  • The best practices and tips for foundation or footing formwork are:




  • Use traditional formwork materials for foundation or footing formwork to reduce cost and complexity.



  • Use lightweight materials or systems for foundation or footing formwork to reduce labor and equipment costs.



  • Use reusable formwork systems for foundation or footing formwork to reduce environmental impact and waste.



  • Use reinforcement or waterproofing techniques for foundation or footing formwork to enhance the durability and protection of the concrete structure.




Conclusion




Formwork for concrete is a vital part of any construction project. It requires careful design and construction to ensure the safety, economy, quality and efficiency of the process. It also requires knowledge and skill to select and use the appropriate type and method of formwork for different types of concrete structures.


If you want to learn more about formwork for concrete, you should definitely read the book by Mary Krumboltz Hurd. She is a leading expert in the field of concrete construction, with decades of experience and expertise. Her book, titled Formwork for Concrete, is a comprehensive guide that covers all aspects of formwork design, construction, inspection, maintenance and repair. It also includes the latest developments in technology, materials, methods and standards for formwork for concrete.


The PDF 13 edition of her book is available for download or purchase from the American Concrete Institute (ACI) website. It is a must-have resource for anyone who is involved in concrete construction projects. Whether you are a student, a teacher, an engineer, a contractor or a worker, you will find this book to be useful and informative. Don't miss this opportunity to get your copy today!


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about formwork for concrete or the book by Mary Krumboltz Hurd:



  • Q: What is the difference between formwork and falsework?



  • A: Formwork is the structure that supports the fresh concrete until it hardens, while falsework is the structure that supports the formwork or the concrete structure during construction.



  • Q: What are the advantages and disadvantages of using steel formwork for concrete?



  • A: Steel formwork is a type of engineered formwork that is made of steel or metal. The advantages of steel formwork are that it is fast and easy to assemble and disassemble, it saves material and reduces waste, it is durable and resistant to moisture, temperature, corrosion and fire, it has a high load-bearing capacity and can withstand heavy or dynamic loads, and it provides a smooth and uniform surface finish for the concrete. The disadvantages of steel formwork are that it is expensive and requires a large initial investment, it is rigid and inflexible to changes in shape and size of concrete structure, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to handle and transport, and it may not be compatible with other types of formwork or accessories.



  • Q: How long should the formwork be left in place after pouring the concrete?



A: The duration of leaving the formwork in place after pouring the concrete depends on several factors, such as the type and strength of the concrete, the type and size of the formwork, the ambient temperature and humidity, and the curing method. However, a general rule of thumb is to le


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